Louverture's prominent role in the Haitian success over colonialism and slavery had earned him the admiration of friends and detractors alike. Toussaint Louverture began his military career as a leader of the 1791 slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue; he was by then a free man and a Jacobin.
1) France, 2) Led a revolution in South America, 3) Was a priest.
1) Toussaint L'Ouverture was an Haitian mulatto who led an slave revolt that make Haiti (then known as Saint Domingue) an state independent of France in late 18th Century.
2) Simon Bolivar was a Venezuelan millitary that led a revolution in Venezuela and Colombia in favor of their independence from Spain.
3) Miguel Hidalgo was a Mexican priest that was crucial in Mexican independence from Spain.
Enlightenment ideas had already spread to the Americas.
Latin America was under European control, with most of it colonized by the Spanish at the time.
Once Napoleon invaded Spain and put his brother on the throne, Spanish colonists were inspired to act.
They didn't want to serve a French king
The first Latin American colony gained its independence in 1804.
Saint Domingue, now called Haiti, occupies one-half of the island of Hispaniola in the Carrbean Sea
Saint Domingue was a colony of France, while Santo Domingo was a colony of Spain.
After the French Revolution, Hatti rebeled.
Most of Saint Domingue's population was that of enslaved people.
They were very dependent on sugar plantations and those plantation owners (White People or the Spanish) forced africans to work on those sugar plantations. No pay. - 1789
The colonist's fear is that the enslaved Africans would organize an uprising.
In 1791, 100,000 enslaved people revolted against the plantation owners in Hatti. The rebels eventually gained control of the island and freed all those enslaved. They were led by a man named Toussaint L'Ouveture.
Toussaint L'Ouverture was an educated skilled general and diplomat. he died in a French prison before independence was won a year later (1804).
His constitution not only abolished slavery, it placed Toussaint at the head of the government. Napoleon wasn't going have that so he sent troops in to defeat the Hattians. They made a deal about no more slavery and that was that.
Until the French took him and he died in a French Prison.
Toussaint proclaimed Saint-Domingue's constitution on July 1, 1801.
Hatti became the first colony in Latin America (Caribbean) to gain its independance.
Spain's Class Structure
(based on birth)
Born in Spain and could hold high offices in Spanish colonial government
Spaniards born in Latin America. They ran the day-to-day operations of the colony. Held positions in government or officers in the army. Least oppressed, best educated. Sparked revolts
Mixed with European and Indian ancestry
Mixed with European and African ancestry
Most oppressed group
-American Indians/Native Americans-
Most oppressed group
Napoleon seized the Spanish throne which led to the Colonial control weakened and eventually, the colonies rebelled.
Criollos did not recognize the French king. Criollos believed the people should control the country.
Simon Bolivar, a general, liberated northern South America from Spanish rule. He was known as... The "Liberator" (ooh, imtimidating).
He wanted to create a unified Latin American republic, simular to the US.
Jose de San Martin, a Criollo who served in the Napoleon war, liberated Southern South America and led an army over the Andes Mountains to free Chile and led Argentine rebels against the Spanish colonial government.
He gave control of the army to Bolivar.
Together, Simon and Jose ended Spainish control of South America! (yay, happy ending. woo.)
In 1807, Napoleon's attack on Portugal forced the royal family to flee to Brazil.
In 1822, the crollos demanded Brazil's independence from Portugal and asked Don Pedro to rule.
Don Pedro officially declared Brazil independent.
Brazil's approch to independence was less revolutionary than their Latin American counterparts.
Mexico's population included a mix of European and American heritages.
-Peninsulares ran the government
-Criollos held positions of wealth and influence
-Mestizos and American Indians held the lowest positions in society
In 1810, Miguel Hidalgo, a Mexican preist issued a call for rebellion against Spain.
The call, that gathering of the lower class, is known as "The Cry of Delores." Indians and mestizos marched against the creole and peninsular elites.
Him and his rebels were defeated in 1811 and Hidalgo was tried and executed.
Hidalgo believed in enlightenment ideas.
Events in Spain Mexico's peninsulares and criollos toward independence.
A coup d'etat in Spain overthrew the government. Agustin de Iturbide proclaimed Mexico's independence. He named himself emperor before being overthrown by the members of the representative assembly.
One of those people was Santa Anna.
The new government of Latin Americe had significant challenges that would greatly hinder their success.
*Sharp culture differences
*Unequal distribution of land
*Lack of access
*Disruption of trade and commerce
Toussaint Louverture was a former Haitian slave who led the only successful slave revolt in modern history. Standing steadfastly, he fought to end slavery and gain Haiti's independence from European powers, France and Spain
François-Domenica Bréda known as Toussaint-Louverture (1743-1803) was one of the leaders of the Haitian revolution and the first black man to become governor of a colony.
Toussaint-Louverture was born into slavery in approximately 1743 in the French colony of Saint Domingue. He belonged to a small and priviledged class of slaves employed by humane masters as personal servants. The Count de Breda, Toussaint’s owner, actively encouraged him to learn to read and write. He developed a passion for books and his readings were to become a great influence in his political life. Toussaint was freed from slavery at around the age of 33 and colonial records show that he became a land and slave owner himself.
The French Revolution of 1789 had a powerful impact on Saint Domingue. A complex civil war broke out in 1790 when free men of color claimed that they too were French citizens and should be allowed to enjoy the rights proclaimed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
the answer is D. France
The Correct Answer is C
The Haitian Revolution
Explanation:The Haitian Revolution should regularly be termed as the greatest and most victorious slave revolt in the Western Hemisphere.The social uncertainty of Saint Domingue was the principal circumstance in the Haitian revolutionSlaves launched the revolt had achieved in achieving not just slavery but French authority over the colony.
Your question: What country did Toussaint L'ouverture lead to freedom?
Your Haiti was the country that Toussaint L'ouverture lead to freedom.