The invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution had several consequences, both positive and negative. ... Besides societal changes, the Neolithic Revolution also had biological effects. Greater numbers of people living in smaller spaces meant that infectious diseases were more easily transmitted.Neolithic populations generally had poorer nutrition, shorter life expectancy, and a more labor-intensive lifestyle than hunter-gatherers.The Neolithic Revolution changed the way humans lived. The use of agriculture allowed humans to develop permanent settlements, social classes, and new technologies. Some of these early groups settled in the fertile valleys of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates, Yellow, and Indus Rivers.