Me brainliest 1. what does a red shift mean? blue shift? 2. describe the big bang theory. according to this theory, how old is the universe? 3. scientists believe the universe is expanding. what is the evidence that supports this? 4. describe a nebula.5. describe the 3 types of galaxies. what is a barred spiral galaxy? 6. what is a light year? how far is alpha centauri from earth? 7. describe the universal law of gravitation. be sure to include gravitational force between two objects.8. describe the planets’ orbits around the sun.9. what is the asteroid belt? where is it located? 10. describe rotation and revolution of earth. what determines an earth day and year? 11. how do galaxies exist? 12. compare and contrast the inner and outer planets.13. what causes the seasons?
Hey! I love space. So I have added all the answers for your questions
Explanation: 1.A blue shift is any decrease in wavelength (increase in energy), with a corresponding increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave; the opposite effect is referred to as red shift. In visible light, this shifts the color from the red end of the spectrum to the blue end.
2.This relic radiation is known as the cosmic microwave background radiation. The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the universe was only 10–17 million years old.
3. The observations of Edwin Hubble in 1929 suggested that distant galaxies were all apparently moving away from us, so that many scientists came to accept that the universe was expanding.
4.A nebula (Latin for 'cloud' or 'fog'; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases. ... Most nebulae are of vast size; some are hundreds of light-years in diameter.
5.There are three main types of galaxies: Elliptical, Spiral, and Irregular. Two of these three types are further divided and classified into a system that is now known the tuning fork diagram.
6.There are 6 trillion miles in a light-year (approximately), so the distance we need to go is 6 trillion miles / light-year times 4 light-years, or 24 trillion miles. So, this trip would take 1.2 billion hours. There are 24 hours a day and 365.25 days per year, so this time in years is 137 thousand years. Alpha Centauri is 4.367 light years away from Earth.
7.Newton's law of universal gravitation states that two objects are attracted to each other by a force which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ... For the force between two charges and separated by a distance.
8.The other objects are pulled into orbit around the Sun. ... There are eight planets in the Solar System. From closest to farthest from the Sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The first four planets are called terrestrial planets
9.The Asteroid Belt is a region between the inner planets and outer planets where thousands of asteroids are found orbiting around the Sun. More than 7000 asteroids have been discovered.
10. Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis. ... Earth rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the Sun, but once every 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds with respect to other, distant, stars (see below). Earth's rotation is slowing slightly with time; thus, a day was shorter in the past.
11.A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter. ... Most of the galaxies are 1,000 to 100,000 parsecs in diameter (approximately 3000 to 300,000 light years) and separated by distances on the order of millions of parsecs (or megaparsecs).
12.Unlike the outer planets, which have many satellites, Mercury and Venus do not have moons, Earth has one, and Mars has two. Of course, the inner planets have shorter orbits around the Sun, and they all spin more slowly.
13.How does the Sun cause the seasons? Seasons are caused by the Earth's revolution around the Sun, as well as the tilt of the Earth on its axis. The hemisphere receiving the most direct sunlight experiences spring and summer, while the other experiences autumn and winter.
There you go!
1. red shift: he displacement of spectral lines toward longer wavelengths (the red end of the spectrum) in radiation from distant galaxies and celestial objects. This is interpreted as a Doppler shift that is proportional to the velocity of recession and thus to distance.
2. blue shift: the displacement of the spectrum to shorter wavelengths in the light coming from distant celestial objects moving toward the observer.
3. The curve changes noticeably about 7.5 billion years ago, when objects in the universe began flying apart as a faster rate. Astronomers theorize that the faster expansion rate is due to a mysterious, dark force that is pulling galaxies apart. One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space.
4. A nebula is a giant cloud of dust and gas in space. Some nebulae (more than one nebula) come from the gas and dust thrown out by the explosion of a dying star, such as a supernova. Other nebulae are regions where new stars are beginning to form. For this reason, some nebulae are called "star nurseries."
5. Elliptical, Spiral, and Irregular. Two of these three types are further divided and classified into a system that is now known the tuning fork diagram.
A barred spiral galaxy is a spiral galaxy with a central bar-shaped structure composed of stars. Bars are found in between one third and two thirds of all spiral galaxies. Bars generally affect both the motions of stars and interstellar gas within spiral galaxies and can affect spiral arms as well.
6. a unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, which is 9.4607 × 1012 km (nearly 6 trillion miles).
4.367 light years is how far they are from eachother.
7. Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.[note 1] This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Isaac Newton called inductive reasoning. It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"), first published on 5 July 1687. When Newton presented Book 1 of the unpublished text in April 1686 to the Royal Society, Robert Hooke made a claim that Newton had obtained the inverse square law from him. In today's language, the law states that every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force acting along the line intersecting the two points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
8. Newton realized that the reason the planets orbit the Sun is related to why objects fall to Earth when we drop them. The Sun's gravity pulls on the planets, just as Earth's gravity pulls down anything that is not held up by some other force and keeps you and me on the ground.
9. The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called asteroids or minor planets.
10. Earth spins around its axis, just as a top spins around its spindle. This spinning movement is called Earth's rotation. At the same time that the Earth spins on its axis, it also orbits, or revolves around the Sun. This movement is called revolution.
A day is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation around its axis.
An Earth year is 365 days. It's the time that it takes the Earth to orbit the Sun. Each planet takes a different amount of time to orbit the Sun, so the length of each planet's year is different to ours. See if you can match up the planet to the length of year below.
11. One says that galaxies were born when vast clouds of gas and dust collapsed under their own gravitational pull, allowing stars to form. The other, which has gained strength in recent years, says the young universe contained many small "lumps" of matter, which clumped together to form galaxies.
12. The outer planets are further away, larger and made up mostly of gas. The inner planets (in order of distance from the sun, closest to furthest) are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. After an asteroid belt comes the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
13. The seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis away or toward the sun as it travels through its year-long path around the sun. The Earth has a tilt of 23.5 degrees relative to the "ecliptic plane" (the imaginary surface formed by it's almost-cicular path around the sun).