Anesthesia was used in 95% of Civil War surgeries. Sulfuric ether had been discovered in Europe in the 1830's and was first used as an anesthetic by William Morton in 1846. After a successful public demonstration it became widely used in surgery.
cellular respiration oxidizes food into energy in the form of atps.
glycolysis (6 c hexose) > 2x atps are used > 6c hexose biphosphate > 2 x 3c triphosphate >
2 x 3c pyruvate (2x nadh produced from nad) and (4x atp produced)
pyruvate actively pumped mitochondrial matrix.