2. lactic acid fermentation
5. alcohol fermentation
A is correct because energy from electrons from oxygen are used to pump the H+ (as well as electrons from NADH) It's not D because glycolysis happens both in absence and presence of oxygen and never uses O2 so glycolysis is the same in both processes, its what happens after glycolysis that is dependent on the availability of oxygen (oxidative phosphorylation or fermentation)
Glycolysis evolved very early in ancestors that are common to all the domains of life.
This is because the site of glycolysis is cytoplasm which is present in both prokaryotes as well as eukaryotes.
As prokaryotes are the early ancestors of all domains of life therefore it is also considered that glycolysis is evolved very early.
Glycolysis is not an oxygen dependent process and the rate of glycolysis is not affected by the amount of oxygen present. The amount of oxygen present affects the rate of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Hence with more oxygen present, there is increased oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of high amounts of final electron acceptor O2 which pumps more protons across the membrane and results in a steeper proton gradient across the mitochondrial membrane thus increasing the rate of ATP production. Thus the answer is A as the rate of proton pumping is increased with higher rate of oxidative phosphorylation due to the abundance of final electron acceptor O2.
The krebs cycle
I know this from a multiple choice question I helped my friend with lol