Which of the following statements best distinguishes a hypothesis from a theory? a. theories are hypotheses that have been proved. b. hypotheses are guesses; theories are correct answers c. hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power. d. theories are proved to be true; hypotheses are often contradicted by experimental results.
c. Hypotheses usually are relatively narrow in scope; theories have broad explanatory power.
In scientific decipline, the hypothesis is a tentative statement which is produced by the method of prediction and assumption based on direct observation of the natural phenomena or event. It can be tested by using the experimental methodology.
Theory is a explaination for the cause of natural event or phenomena. This is based on the evidences obtained after experimental trials. A hypothesis can be used for generation of theory. A theory is more explanatory approach because of the details and evidences than hypothesis. Hence, c is the correct option.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
This excerpt comes from the book "The Philosophy of History" by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Hegel was a German philosopher and one of the most influential philosophers in history. He was important in the development of many recent ideologies and philosophies, such as the philosophies of Marx and Nietzsche, phenomenology, German existentialism, and psychoanalysis.
Conjecture is commonly based on personal opinion that is made on the basis of incomplete data/information. A conjecture cannot in anyway be considered as a reliable source of information
1. The non overlapping section in Component P is labeled, it has been proven empirically.
This section is referring to theories.
A theory is a a well-founded explanation, supported by extensive evidence, that has not been disapproved by other evidence.
"Proven empirically" does not mean a complete or formal proof. Theories cannot be formally proven, they are just supported by the evidence, and are subject to possible rejection or mofication if new evidence contradicts previous evidence.
When a lot of evidence supports an explanation then it is approved by the scientific community and is said that it is "proven empirically".
2. The non overlapping section in Component Q is labeled, it has not yet been proved or disproved.
This section is referred to hypothesis.
Hypothesis are assumptions, a possible explanation that has not been accepted or rejected. It is like and educated guess.
3. In the overlapping section between the two circles is labeled it is a part of the scientific method.
Both hypothesis and theories are part of the scientific method.
As said, hypothesis have not been either approved or rejected, thus hypothesis do not have power to eplain a scientific phenomenum. Hypothesis must be subject to experimentation to search for evidence. They are jsut tentative explanations, not evidence by themself.
Then, theories, which are the section labeled component P, is likely to be more powerful in explaining a scientific phenomenon, because being supported by ample evidence is a characteristic of a theory.